Stanford 机器学习练习 Part 3 Neural Networks: Representation


   从神经网络开始,感觉自己慢慢跟不上课程的节奏了,一些代码好多参考了别人的代码,而且,让我现在单独写也不一定写的出来了。学习就是一件慢慢积累的过程,两年前我学算法的时候,好多算法都完全看不懂,但后来,看的多了,做的多了,有一天就茅塞顿开。所有的困难都是一时的,只要坚持下去,一切问题都会解决的。没忍住发了点鸡汤文。

    关于神经网络,我表示现在的理解就是每一层都每个神经元都是依靠logistics regression得出的,所以必须先要掌握logistics regression。关于如何训练这个模型的算法(比如 反向传播算法),我也在这周的课程中慢慢学。其中涉及到好多数据处理的技巧,这些都是得通过练习才能学会的。

    下面是我参考别人代码写的第四周神经网络的编程练习,仅作为参考。

关于lrCostFunction,我直接用了上周练习中CostFunction的代码,没想到竟然也可以通过。

lrCostFunction.m

function [J, grad] = lrCostFunction(theta, X, y, lambda)
%LRCOSTFUNCTION Compute cost and gradient for logistic regression with 
%regularization
%   J = LRCOSTFUNCTION(theta, X, y, lambda) computes the cost of using
%   theta as the parameter for regularized logistic regression and the
%   gradient of the cost w.r.t. to the parameters. 

% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly 
J = 0;
grad = zeros(size(theta));

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta.
%               You should set J to the cost.
%               Compute the partial derivatives and set grad to the partial
%               derivatives of the cost w.r.t. each parameter in theta
%
% Hint: The computation of the cost function and gradients can be
%       efficiently vectorized. For example, consider the computation
%
%           sigmoid(X * theta)
%
%       Each row of the resulting matrix will contain the value of the
%       prediction for that example. You can make use of this to vectorize
%       the cost function and gradient computations. 
%
% Hint: When computing the gradient of the regularized cost function, 
%       there're many possible vectorized solutions, but one solution
%       looks like:
%           grad = (unregularized gradient for logistic regression)
%           temp = theta; 
%           temp(1) = 0;   % because we don't add anything for j = 0  
%           grad = grad + YOUR_CODE_HERE (using the temp variable)
%

h = sigmoid(X*theta);  
J = m^-1 * sum(((-1) * y.*log(h)).-((1- y).*log(1 - h)));
theta(1) = 0;
tmp = lambda/(2*m)*sum(theta.^2);
J = J + tmp;
grad = m^-1 * ((h.-y)'*X)' + lambda/m * theta; 


% =============================================================

grad = grad(:);

end


oneVsAll.m

function [all_theta] = oneVsAll(X, y, num_labels, lambda)
%ONEVSALL trains multiple logistic regression classifiers and returns all
%the classifiers in a matrix all_theta, where the i-th row of all_theta 
%corresponds to the classifier for label i
%   [all_theta] = ONEVSALL(X, y, num_labels, lambda) trains num_labels
%   logisitc regression classifiers and returns each of these classifiers
%   in a matrix all_theta, where the i-th row of all_theta corresponds 
%   to the classifier for label i

% Some useful variables
m = size(X, 1);
n = size(X, 2);

% You need to return the following variables correctly 
all_theta = zeros(num_labels, n + 1);

% Add ones to the X data matrix
X = [ones(m, 1) X];

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: You should complete the following code to train num_labels
%               logistic regression classifiers with regularization
%               parameter lambda. 
%
% Hint: theta(:) will return a column vector.
%
% Hint: You can use y == c to obtain a vector of 1's and 0's that tell use 
%       whether the ground truth is true/false for this class.
%
% Note: For this assignment, we recommend using fmincg to optimize the cost
%       function. It is okay to use a for-loop (for c = 1:num_labels) to
%       loop over the different classes.
%
%       fmincg works similarly to fminunc, but is more efficient when we
%       are dealing with large number of parameters.
%
% Example Code for fmincg:
%
%     % Set Initial theta
%     initial_theta = zeros(n + 1, 1);
%     
%     % Set options for fminunc
%     options = optimset('GradObj', 'on', 'MaxIter', 50);
% 
%     % Run fmincg to obtain the optimal theta
%     % This function will return theta and the cost 
%     [theta] = ...
%         fmincg (@(t)(lrCostFunction(t, X, (y == c), lambda)), ...
%                 initial_theta, options);
%
for k=1:num_labels
    initial_theta = zeros(n + 1, 1);
    options = optimset('GradObj', 'on', 'MaxIter', 50);
    [theta] = fmincg (@(t)(lrCostFunction(t, X, (y == k), lambda)),initial_theta, options);
    all_theta(k,:) = theta';
end
% =========================================================================

end

predictOneVsAll.m

function p = predictOneVsAll(all_theta, X)
%PREDICT Predict the label for a trained one-vs-all classifier. The labels 
%are in the range 1..K, where K = size(all_theta, 1). 
%  p = PREDICTONEVSALL(all_theta, X) will return a vector of predictions
%  for each example in the matrix X. Note that X contains the examples in
%  rows. all_theta is a matrix where the i-th row is a trained logistic
%  regression theta vector for the i-th class. You should set p to a vector
%  of values from 1..K (e.g., p = [1; 3; 1; 2] predicts classes 1, 3, 1, 2
%  for 4 examples) 

m = size(X, 1);
num_labels = size(all_theta, 1);

% You need to return the following variables correctly 
p = zeros(size(X, 1), 1);

% Add ones to the X data matrix
X = [ones(m, 1) X];

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Complete the following code to make predictions using
%               your learned logistic regression parameters (one-vs-all).
%               You should set p to a vector of predictions (from 1 to
%               num_labels).
%
% Hint: This code can be done all vectorized using the max function.
%       In particular, the max function can also return the index of the 
%       max element, for more information see 'help max'. If your examples 
%       are in rows, then, you can use max(A, [], 2) to obtain the max 
%       for each row.
%       
[c,i] = max(sigmoid(X * all_theta'), [], 2);
p = i;

% =========================================================================


end

predict.m

function p = predict(Theta1, Theta2, X)
%PREDICT Predict the label of an input given a trained neural network
%   p = PREDICT(Theta1, Theta2, X) outputs the predicted label of X given the
%   trained weights of a neural network (Theta1, Theta2)

% Useful values
m = size(X, 1);
num_labels = size(Theta2, 1);

% You need to return the following variables correctly 
p = zeros(size(X, 1), 1);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Complete the following code to make predictions using
%               your learned neural network. You should set p to a 
%               vector containing labels between 1 to num_labels.
%
% Hint: The max function might come in useful. In particular, the max
%       function can also return the index of the max element, for more
%       information see 'help max'. If your examples are in rows, then, you
%       can use max(A, [], 2) to obtain the max for each row.
%

X = [ones(m, 1) X];
z2 = Theta1 * X';
a2 = sigmoid(z2);
a2 = [ones(1, m);a2];
z3 = Theta2 * a2;
a3 = sigmoid(z3);
output =a3';
[c,i] = max(output, [], 2);
p = i;

% =========================================================================

end

Stanford 机器学习练习 Part 1 Linear Regression



warmUpExercise.m

function A = warmUpExercise()
%WARMUPEXERCISE Example function in octave
%   A = WARMUPEXERCISE() is an example function that returns the 5x5 identity matrix
    A = [];

% ============= YOUR CODE HERE ==============
% Instructions: Return the 5x5 identity matrix 
%               In octave, we return values by defining which variables
%               represent the return values (at the top of the file)
%               and then set them accordingly. 
    A = eye(5);
% ===========================================
end

computeCost.m

function J = computeCost(X, y, theta)
%COMPUTECOST Compute cost for linear regression
%   J = COMPUTECOST(X, y, theta) computes the cost of using theta as the
%   parameter for linear regression to fit the data points in X and y
% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples
% You need to return the following variables correctly 
J = 0;
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta
%               You should set J to the cost.
J = sum((X*theta - y).^2) / (2*m);
% =========================================================================
end

plotData.m

function plotData(x, y)
%PLOTDATA Plots the data points x and y into a new figure 
%   PLOTDATA(x,y) plots the data points and gives the figure axes labels of
%   population and profit.
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Plot the training data into a figure using the 
%               "figure" and "plot" commands. Set the axes labels using
%               the "xlabel" and "ylabel" commands. Assume the 
%               population and revenue data have been passed in
%               as the x and y arguments of this function.
%
% Hint: You can use the 'rx' option with plot to have the markers
%       appear as red crosses. Furthermore, you can make the
%       markers larger by using plot(..., 'rx', 'MarkerSize', 10);

figure; % open a new figure window
plot(x, y, 'rx', 'MarkerSize', 5);
xlabel("x");
ylabel("y");
% ============================================================
end

gradientDescent.m

function [theta, J_history] = gradientDescent(X, y, theta, alpha, num_iters)
%GRADIENTDESCENT Performs gradient descent to learn theta
%   theta = GRADIENTDESENT(X, y, theta, alpha, num_iters) updates theta by 
%   taking num_iters gradient steps with learning rate alpha
% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples
J_history = zeros(num_iters, 1);

for iter = 1:num_iters
    % ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
    % Instructions: Perform a single gradient step on the parameter vector
    %               theta. 
    %
    % Hint: While debugging, it can be useful to print out the values
    %       of the cost function (computeCost) and gradient here.
    %
    temp = 0;
    temp = temp + alpha/m * X' * (y - X * theta);
    theta = theta + temp;
    % ============================================================
    % Save the cost J in every iteration    
    J_history(iter) = computeCost(X, y, theta);
end
end

ex1.m

%% Machine Learning Online Class - Exercise 1: Linear Regression

%  Instructions
%  ------------
% 
%  This file contains code that helps you get started on the
%  linear exercise. You will need to complete the following functions 
%  in this exericse:
%
%     warmUpExercise.m
%     plotData.m
%     gradientDescent.m
%     computeCost.m
%     gradientDescentMulti.m
%     computeCostMulti.m
%     featureNormalize.m
%     normalEqn.m
%
%  For this exercise, you will not need to change any code in this file,
%  or any other files other than those mentioned above.
%
% x refers to the population size in 10,000s
% y refers to the profit in $10,000s
%

%% Initialization
clear ; close all; clc

%% ==================== Part 1: Basic Function ====================
% Complete warmUpExercise.m 
fprintf('Running warmUpExercise ... \n');
fprintf('5x5 Identity Matrix: \n');
warmUpExercise()

fprintf('Program paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;


%% ======================= Part 2: Plotting =======================
fprintf('Plotting Data ...\n')
data = load('ex1data1.txt');
X = data(:, 1); y = data(:, 2);
m = length(y); % number of training examples

% Plot Data
% Note: You have to complete the code in plotData.m
plotData(X, y);

fprintf('Program paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% =================== Part 3: Gradient descent ===================
fprintf('Running Gradient Descent ...\n')

X = [ones(m, 1), data(:,1)]; % Add a column of ones to x
theta = zeros(2, 1); % initialize fitting parameters

% Some gradient descent settings
iterations = 1500;
alpha = 0.01;

% compute and display initial cost
computeCost(X, y, theta)

% run gradient descent
theta = gradientDescent(X, y, theta, alpha, iterations);

% print theta to screen
fprintf('Theta found by gradient descent: ');
fprintf('%f %f \n', theta(1), theta(2));

% Plot the linear fit
hold on; % keep previous plot visible
plot(X(:,2), X*theta, '-')
legend('Training data', 'Linear regression')
hold off % don't overlay any more plots on this figure

% Predict values for population sizes of 35,000 and 70,000
predict1 = [1, 3.5] *theta;
fprintf('For population = 35,000, we predict a profit of %f\n',...
    predict1*10000);
predict2 = [1, 7] * theta;
fprintf('For population = 70,000, we predict a profit of %f\n',...
    predict2*10000);

fprintf('Program paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============= Part 4: Visualizing J(theta_0, theta_1) =============
fprintf('Visualizing J(theta_0, theta_1) ...\n')

% Grid over which we will calculate J
theta0_vals = linspace(-10, 10, 100);
theta1_vals = linspace(-1, 4, 100);

% initialize J_vals to a matrix of 0's
J_vals = zeros(length(theta0_vals), length(theta1_vals));

% Fill out J_vals
for i = 1:length(theta0_vals)
    for j = 1:length(theta1_vals)
      t = [theta0_vals(i); theta1_vals(j)];    
      J_vals(i,j) = computeCost(X, y, t);
    end
end


% Because of the way meshgrids work in the surf command, we need to 
% transpose J_vals before calling surf, or else the axes will be flipped
J_vals = J_vals';
% Surface plot
figure;
surf(theta0_vals, theta1_vals, J_vals)
xlabel('\theta_0'); ylabel('\theta_1');

% Contour plot
figure;
% Plot J_vals as 15 contours spaced logarithmically between 0.01 and 100
contour(theta0_vals, theta1_vals, J_vals, logspace(-2, 3, 20))
xlabel('\theta_0'); ylabel('\theta_1');
hold on;
plot(theta(1), theta(2), 'rx', 'MarkerSize', 10, 'LineWidth', 2);


featureNormalize.m

function [X_norm, mu, sigma] = featureNormalize(X)
%FEATURENORMALIZE Normalizes the features in X 
%   FEATURENORMALIZE(X) returns a normalized version of X where
%   the mean value of each feature is 0 and the standard deviation
%   is 1. This is often a good preprocessing step to do when
%   working with learning algorithms.

% You need to set these values correctly
X_norm = X;
m = size(X, 2);
mu = zeros(1, size(X, 2));
mu = mean(X);
sigma = std(X);
for i = 1:m
    X_norm(:,i) = (X(:,i).-mu(i))./sigma(i);
end
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: First, for each feature dimension, compute the mean
%               of the feature and subtract it from the dataset,
%               storing the mean value in mu. Next, compute the 
%               standard deviation of each feature and divide
%               each feature by it's standard deviation, storing
%               the standard deviation in sigma. 
%
%               Note that X is a matrix where each column is a 
%               feature and each row is an example. You need 
%               to perform the normalization separately for 
%               each feature. 
%
% Hint: You might find the 'mean' and 'std' functions useful.
%       









% ============================================================

end

computeCostMulti.m

function J = computeCostMulti(X, y, theta)
%COMPUTECOSTMULTI Compute cost for linear regression with multiple variables
%   J = COMPUTECOSTMULTI(X, y, theta) computes the cost of using theta as the
%   parameter for linear regression to fit the data points in X and y
% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples
% You need to return the following variables correctly 
J = 0;
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta
%               You should set J to the cost.
J = 1/(2*m) * ( X * theta - y)' * (X*theta - y);
% =========================================================================
end


gradientDescentMulti.m

function [theta, J_history] = gradientDescentMulti(X, y, theta, alpha, num_iters)
%GRADIENTDESCENTMULTI Performs gradient descent to learn theta
%   theta = GRADIENTDESCENTMULTI(x, y, theta, alpha, num_iters) updates theta by
%   taking num_iters gradient steps with learning rate alpha

% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples
J_history = zeros(num_iters, 1);

temp = zeros(feature_number,1); 

for iter = 1:num_iters
    temp = alpha/m * X' * (y - X*theta);
    theta = theta + temp;
    J_history(iter) = computeCostMulti(X, y, theta); 
    % ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
    % Instructions: Perform a single gradient step on the parameter vector
    %               theta. 
    %
    % Hint: While debugging, it can be useful to print out the values
    %       of the cost function (computeCostMulti) and gradient here.
    %
    % ============================================================
    % Save the cost J in every iteration    
    J_history(iter) = computeCostMulti(X, y, theta);

end

end

normalEqn.m

function [theta] = normalEqn(X, y)
%NORMALEQN Computes the closed-form solution to linear regression 
%   NORMALEQN(X,y) computes the closed-form solution to linear 
%   regression using the normal equations.

theta = zeros(size(X, 2), 1);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Complete the code to compute the closed form solution
%               to linear regression and put the result in theta.
%
% ---------------------- Sample Solution ----------------------
theta = pinv(X' * X) * X' * y;
% -------------------------------------------------------------
% ============================================================

end

ex1_multi.m

%% Machine Learning Online Class
%  Exercise 1: Linear regression with multiple variables
%
%  Instructions
%  ------------
% 
%  This file contains code that helps you get started on the
%  linear regression exercise. 
%
%  You will need to complete the following functions in this 
%  exericse:
%
%     warmUpExercise.m
%     plotData.m
%     gradientDescent.m
%     computeCost.m
%     gradientDescentMulti.m
%     computeCostMulti.m
%     featureNormalize.m
%     normalEqn.m
%
%  For this part of the exercise, you will need to change some
%  parts of the code below for various experiments (e.g., changing
%  learning rates).
%

%% Initialization

%% ================ Part 1: Feature Normalization ================

%% Clear and Close Figures
clear ; close all; clc

fprintf('Loading data ...\n');

%% Load Data
data = load('ex1data2.txt');
X = data(:, 1:2);
y = data(:, 3);
m = length(y);

% Print out some data points
fprintf('First 10 examples from the dataset: \n');
fprintf(' x = [%.0f %.0f], y = %.0f \n', [X(1:10,:) y(1:10,:)]');

fprintf('Program paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

% Scale features and set them to zero mean
fprintf('Normalizing Features ...\n');

[X mu sigma] = featureNormalize(X);

% Add intercept term to X
X = [ones(m, 1) X];


%% ================ Part 2: Gradient Descent ================

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: We have provided you with the following starter
%               code that runs gradient descent with a particular
%               learning rate (alpha). 
%
%               Your task is to first make sure that your functions - 
%               computeCost and gradientDescent already work with 
%               this starter code and support multiple variables.
%
%               After that, try running gradient descent with 
%               different values of alpha and see which one gives
%               you the best result.
%
%               Finally, you should complete the code at the end
%               to predict the price of a 1650 sq-ft, 3 br house.
%
% Hint: By using the 'hold on' command, you can plot multiple
%       graphs on the same figure.
%
% Hint: At prediction, make sure you do the same feature normalization.
%

fprintf('Running gradient descent ...\n');

% Choose some alpha value
alpha = 0.01;
num_iters = 400;

% Init Theta and Run Gradient Descent 
theta = zeros(3, 1);
[theta, J_history] = gradientDescentMulti(X, y, theta, alpha, num_iters);

% Plot the convergence graph
figure;
plot(1:numel(J_history), J_history, '-b', 'LineWidth', 2);
xlabel('Number of iterations');
ylabel('Cost J');

% Display gradient descent's result
fprintf('Theta computed from gradient descent: \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', theta);
fprintf('\n');

% Estimate the price of a 1650 sq-ft, 3 br house
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Recall that the first column of X is all-ones. Thus, it does
% not need to be normalized.
price = 0; % You should change this


% ============================================================

fprintf(['Predicted price of a 1650 sq-ft, 3 br house ' ...
         '(using gradient descent):\n $%f\n'], price);

fprintf('Program paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ================ Part 3: Normal Equations ================

fprintf('Solving with normal equations...\n');

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: The following code computes the closed form 
%               solution for linear regression using the normal
%               equations. You should complete the code in 
%               normalEqn.m
%
%               After doing so, you should complete this code 
%               to predict the price of a 1650 sq-ft, 3 br house.
%

%% Load Data
data = csvread('ex1data2.txt');
X = data(:, 1:2);
y = data(:, 3);
m = length(y);

% Add intercept term to X
X = [ones(m, 1) X];

% Calculate the parameters from the normal equation
theta = normalEqn(X, y);

% Display normal equation's result
fprintf('Theta computed from the normal equations: \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', theta);
fprintf('\n');


% Estimate the price of a 1650 sq-ft, 3 br house
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
price = 0; % You should change this


% ============================================================

fprintf(['Predicted price of a 1650 sq-ft, 3 br house ' ...
         '(using normal equations):\n $%f\n'], price);